Located in the central strip of the province of Segovia, at 935 m above sea level, and distant from the capital at 34 km, the town of Turégano is located between the wide valley of the Pirón and Cega rivers, in the area geographical area known as the Campiña.
At present, 1.031 residents live between Turégano and its four districts, which are La Cuesta, Aldeasaz, Berrocal and Carrascal. Turégano, the ancient "Toroda": The ruins of Celtiberian and Roman origin of the ancient Arab fort that surrounds the beautiful medieval castle, suggest that Turégano was a population of vital historical and geographical importance in the most remote antiquity. During the High Middle Ages, in many documents referring to this area of the central plateau of the Iberian Peninsula appear, as a singular milestone of geographical contextualization, several roads related to this Villa, especially the "Semite that goes from Torodano ad Boitracum" (The path that goes from Turégano to Buitrago crossing the Sierra de Guadarrama). From the 1123 year on, at the request of the first bishop of the restored church of Segovia, the French D. Pedro de Agén, the Villa was donated by Queen Doña Urraca and her son King Alfonso VII to the Segovian prelates, Turégano began to be a protagonist of the history of Segovia and Castilla. For being the Bishop and Lord of the Villa member of the Royal Council of Castile, mainly during the s. XIV and XV, Turégano became headquarters of the Chancery and Audience of the kingdom, and repeatedly, court and residence of the Castilian kings, as when King Juan I, in September of 1390, signed in Turégano the Royal Charter of Foundation of the Monastery of San Benito de Valladolid, or when, on the occasion of the solemn reconciliation between King Juan II and the Constable Don Álvaro de Luna, the most lavish parties that Castile ever saw took place.
Great historical figures were related to this Villa, Queen Doña Urraca de Castilla and her son Alfonso VII, King Pedro I, King Juan I, Don Álvaro de Luna, King Juan II, King Enrique IV, Bishop Juan Arias Dávila, the Catholic Monarchs Don Fernando and Doña Isabel, the Emperor Carlos V and is that, as they say one of the best abstract painters of s. XX, Esteban Vicente, many saw in this Villa a prodigious balance between freedom and wisdom, expressiveness and elegance.
To say Turégano is to say Castillo, because the fortress of this Villa Episcopal is one of the most important in Spain and, of course, the most singular of all due to its character as an impregnable fortified church. The first bishop, Don Pedro de Agén, considered that the old fort, built on a gentle hill, was the ideal place to locate the new church. Embedded in this way in the castle, the church of San Miguel testifies, by the attached buildings and superimposed on the temple, that there were two castles or fortifications on it: the one that was built at the time by Bishop Arias Dávila and another, more primitive, of the that there are lots of architectural remains. Thus, it is worth highlighting six main moments that can be observed in its architectonic framework: the Arab hill fort, the primitive Romanesque church of San Miguel, topped with loopholes and built inside the castro s. XII-XIII; the Castle-Palace of the bishops superimposed on the enlarged church and that hid in its entrails the beautiful Romanesque bell tower s. XV; the fortress remodeled by Juan Arias Dávila s. XV; the adaptation of Diego de Rivera and the dismantling of the Episcopal Palace superimposed on the naves of the church s. XVI; and finally, the construction in 1703 of the bulrush tower and demolition of the outer bell tower and some walls on the east side. In times of Carlos III, the castle of Turégano happened to depend on the Crown, being restored to the short time to the Mitra segoviana. At the proposal of the Ministry of Public Instruction and Fine Arts, the 3 June 1931 was declared a Historical Artistic Monument. The 2 of November of 1994, the Diocese of Segovia delivered to the City Council of Turégano the use and enjoyment of the castle, with the exception of the church of San Miguel, for 30 years extendable.
Church of San Miguel
In her they emphasize two constructive phases, first would correspond to the lateral ships and the elevated tower on the cruise, of which only they are slight witnesses to be embedded inside the central tower or tower of the homage of the own castle. Of the second phase highlights the central nave, built by good ashlar masonry and covered with pointed barrel vault, generated by the arches fajones that support it. In all its interior it emphasizes the sculptural decoration: capitals historiados of the side of the epistle, vegetal decorations, acanthus leaves and palmettes.
The Castro and its Walls
Several towers of the old Arab hill fort, partly toppled, are still standing, defiant, linked together by the mud walls that surround the fortress enclosure built on the church of San Miguel. In its day it was a walled citadel that protected the area. What remains has exceptional historical value: a unique military jewel in the panorama of the defenses of the High Middle Ages.
Church of Santiago
The present parish of the Villa, National Monument, is a real artistic jewel, not only for its Romanesque apse of the s. XII, its Baroque altarpieces and the primitive Romanesque altarpiece in stone, but for the incredible sculptural treasure, goldsmith's work and religious elements accumulated in it as a result of having inherited some unique pieces from other Tureganese parishes: the Byzantine Christ of the church of San Pedro, the incomparable Romanesque carving of the Virgen del Burgo, the triptych of Gothic painting (possibly by Bishop Arias Dávila), the Romanesque baptismal font from San Miguel, Diego Rivera's gilded silver chalice, superb baroque carvings in polychrome wood and a very rich collection of religious ornaments. As it has arrived to our days, it is a temple built in different eras and diverse architectural styles. Its interior consists of a central nave, a side nave where there is a baroque chapel called "Soledad", the apse that houses the main altar, and two sacristies attached to it, one of which, the side of the epistle , was demolished with the intention of leaving free one more arch of the primitive Romanesque structure of the temple.
The discovery of this apse happened at the end of the eighties by chance, while a process of restoration was being carried out inside the temple. However, the restoration works were carried out in the 2009 year after an agreement between the Bishopric and the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Castilla y León. In this process the main altarpiece has been advanced up to the start of the presbytery advancing in its position and leaving the space of the apse free allowing the faithful to wander through the ambulatory and observe the jewel of Romanesque. The iconography is very interesting because it shows the Pantocrator, who is Christ in Majesty, in a position to bless with the right hand and on the left hand the book of life, surrounded by tetramorphs that are the four evangelists: eagle (symbol de S. Juan), bull (symbol of S. Lucas), lion (symbol of S. Marcos) and angel (symbol of S. Mateo) that give glory and honor to those who are seated on the throne. Below you can see three pilgrims wearing the typical clothes of the time and Fernando III, his wife Queen Beatriz of Suabia and Bishop Bernando de Segovia in prayer position before the image of Santiago Apóstol on his right could be represented at his feet. , at the time of worship. According to this hypothesis the figures that have appeared date from the first third of the s. XIII. This arrangement of reliefs in its apse can only be seen in two more sites, in Santo Domingo de la Calzada (La Rioja) and in Seo de Zaragoza, thus making the town of Turégano a cultural reference of the Romanesque of the s. XIII. In addition, its extraordinary polychrome is comparable to that of the Portico de la Gloria of the Cathedral of Santiago.
Plaza of Spain
In daily life, all Turégano events revolve around the Plaza Mayor, which at the beginning of the 19th century. XX was called Plaza de Alfonso XIII, later of the Republic and now of Spain. Also called "of the hundred poles" by the official chronicler of the Villa, Victoriano Borreguero. With different uses, since ancient times, the Plaza Mayor has served as a stage for the celebration of fairs and markets that were so important in the Villa; also and from the end of August we can contemplate, already assembled, his bullring ready to celebrate the famous medieval bullfights of the Villa. Their houses adhere to the same constructive typology: lintelled porticos, sgraffito on their facades, structural lattice of seen wood and covered with long skirts with tile in the style of Segovia, Arabic in canal and without blanket. Sheltered by the castle and protected by it, the Plaza Mayor welcomes us with its particular charm and invites us, as all its neighbors, to whispers and comments between its arcades.
Hermitage of Nuestra Señora de los Remedios and Via Crucis del Humilladero.
The path that runs towards the path of Torreiglesias leads us to the hermitage of Nuestra Señora de los Remedios. Accompanying our steps, a series of crosses, all carved of granite, and of different times of execution. The set offers the visitor a total of 14 crosses that serve as a reminder and stop for the processional or private prayer of the Via Crucis. Accompanied by this breathtaking Vía Crucis, an obligatory walk for tureganenses and visitors, the chapel is accessed, a rectangular building with small dimensions restored in the 1802 year. On the outside there is an inscription granting indulgences "PRAYING A PATER NOSTER BEFORE THIS HOLY XTRO. XL DAYS OF YNDULGENCE ARE GAINED ", and the prayer window is located below the inscription, from where the image of Our Lady of the Remedies can be seen, seated sculpture with the baby Jesus resting on the left knee, and in the hand right, a bouquet of flowers.
The aljama of the tureganenses Jews had remarkable social, economic and religious importance in the s. XIV and XV. One of the neighborhoods of the Villa still offers the characteristic configuration of the Castilian Jewish quarters. It is currently the parish house.
El Burgo, Garden of Bishops. Church of St. Mary
In the primitive neighborhood of El Burgo, for centuries there was the parish of San Pedro and, next to it, the church of Santa María in which Arias Dávila celebrated the episcopal synod of the year 1483. On it, the segovian prelates built their summer palace, "the hotel" where in summer they lived until well into the s. XX.
It was ordered built by the prelate D. Manuel Murillo Argaiz for the residence of the bishops during their stays in the Villa. It is located on the south side of the Plaza Mayor, and currently has its main entrance on the main road, in front of the Romanesque apse of the church of Santiago. With the confiscation of Mendizábal, this palace became private property, and over the years other constructions were added to the building, so the coat of arms of the prelate, which at first was placed on the central façade, had to be moved. one side of the wall
Currently, as private property, the building has largely lost the references of the palace itself, and of course few suspect that its main facade constituted the south end of the Plaza Mayor, without the buildings that now imprison and mask it.
House - Miñano Palace
This house has three floors and attic. Built entirely with the materials of the time: stone, adobe, brick and wood, has undergone various transformations over time. Formerly the building, one of the most important of Turégano, it hosted parking garages, orchards, various outbuildings and stables that served as a non-porticoed angle to the arcades of the square to the Palace-House itself, helping to prolong the whole of the Plaza Mayor itself. At present, the Casa-Palacio de Miñano has an interior courtyard with columns of very good construction, while the exterior facade is divided into a bar, housing, bread office and Tureganense social center.
Pilón de la Plaza de Santiago
It receives its water (not potable) from the Valseco stream or "Madre del Caño" and that has a high relief on its front that explains its construction that was due to King Carlos III.
Located in an enclave without equal, surrounded by a wonderful fauna and flora, is this Museum, located in the old Engineer's House that has been restored to house the memory of the people who have dedicated their lives to the work done in the pine forests : Resiners, glue, stone, guards, etc. In the past, the use of the mountain by man centered its interest in the exploitation of its resources. The pine as a wood resource, the resin, the pinion, the hunting, the local use of pastures and the extraction of brush created an own ecosystem and a way of life for its people. However, in the middle of s. XIX begins the industrial exploitation of the resin what occupied an extensive workforce, and a certain industrial wealth, in addition to a special care of the mountain by the resiners, transforming all that way of doing.
Church of San Cristóbal de La Cuesta
It is a temple of Romanesque origin, built as a result of the repopulation of the area. From that moment it conserves the apse, the two covers and the tower. This is very slender, built in two bodies and with an attached volume between it and the apse to house the spiral staircase. In the upper body the bells are housed. The lower body, covered with a barrel vault, is currently used as a sacristy. The head rests the great triumphal arch folded on capitals and columns. On the side of the epistle you can see a human figure holding two harpies. The magnificent baptismal font is also Romanesque. The main altarpiece is a magnificent work of the second third of the s. XVI.
A toril is kept in good condition. It is a traditional masonry building, covered with wooden armor and Arabic tile in the manner of the area. The stallions, which were communally owned, were kept there. In its interior a manger of great proportions carved in the trunk of an ash tree is conserved. There is also a hermitage in the town, that of San Isidoro, which preserves a baroque altarpiece with the image of the saint.
Berrocal has a small ethnographic group consisting of a mill, next to the Viejo River, a forge and a foal to shoe. The mill is in a picturesque landscape, very pleasant when the water runs through the river and the caz. The forge also conserves its elements and tools. The colt, with its four granite pillars, served to hold the animal that was to be shod, preventing it from harming the smith. The source of the Nava is in a remote place, surrounded by oaks, between Berrocal and La Cuesta.
CARRASCAL DE CUESTA
In the neighborhood above we find the church of San Martín de Tours. It is a temple of the s. XVI, built surely on another older one. The main altarpiece is very popular. In the center there is a relief carved in wood with the scene of Saint Martin sharing the cloak with the beggar. Also it is conserved an image of bulk of the saint dressed as a bishop and dated in the s. XVII. The baptismal font is Romanesque, as perhaps it was the early church. Also in the upper neighborhood is a traditional building that housed two toriles and a forge.
PATH OF THE ENGINEER'S HOUSE
It runs through the public utility mount of La Nava and La Vega, on the southern border of the Tierra de Pinares. To download a gpx file: http://es.wikiloc.com/wikiloc/view.do?id=1293532
SENDA DEL RÍO VIEJO
It is a good proposal to enjoy the landscape of the foothills of the Sierra de Guadarrama. To download a gpx file: http://es.wikiloc.com/wikiloc/view.do?id=1293540
MOUNTAIN BICYCLE ROUTE
This route will allow you to enjoy some of the most beautiful corners of the municipality. To download a gpx file: http://es.wikiloc.com/wikiloc/view.do?id=1293516
The local cuisine is characterized by the preparation of roasts, especially lamb and suckling pig, which in the case of Turégano has about a century of tradition in their ovens. As well as in the restaurants of the Villa we will find another succulent delicacy: the cod to the arriero garlic, elaborated from the middle of s. XX for the women of the town for the Fair of San Andrés. Finally, in the bakeries and bakeries you will find sighs, white buns, yolk donuts, fried donuts, periquillos, pork rind cakes, coconut buns, muffins and a wide range of typical Tureganenses sweets.
The Brotherhoods of Vera Cruz and La Purisima, together with the City Council, organize Tureganense Holy Week. The two processions of Good Friday stand out: the Procession of the Race, in the morning, and the Procession of Silence, at night, which takes place in an atmosphere of special recollection caused by the profound silence of the participants, the illumination of the route with more than five thousand candles and hundreds of torches, together with the impressive sound of a select sacred music and the sad tolling of the bells, within a unique artistic historical setting with the church of Santiago, the porticoed square and the castle in the background that immerse in an authentic mysticism.
Feast of Youth
The first weekend, the festivities of this party are a justified reason to spend some very pleasant times.
The "Function" or parties in honor of the "Sweet Name of Mary", is celebrated over five days around the first Sunday of September. Religious acts, festivals, varied shows, sporting and bullfighting enclosures accompany the main attraction of these festivities: novilladas, which are celebrated in a traditional square wooden square, installed in the same Plaza de España presided over by the imposing "Castillo" .
San Andrés Fair
In addition to the street market on Saturdays, the last days of November is the traditional San Andrés Fair, formerly Santa Catalina, which became the largest livestock fair in Castilla, by the number of traffickers and cattle that came from all places from Spain. From the s. XV there are documents of its enormous acceptance and validity. Historically cattle, has derived to regional fair of agricultural machinery. In addition, a crafts and agri-food fair takes place on those same days.